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The easiest way to understand Threat and Error Management (T.E.M.) is to liken it to defensive driving for a motorist.

The purpose of defensive driving is not to teach people how to drive a vehicle (how to shift a manual transmission) but to emphasise driving techniques that people can use to minimise safety risks (techniques to control rear-wheel skids).

Similarly, T.E.M. does not teach pilots how to technically fly an airplane; instead, it promotes a proactive philosophy and provides techniques for maximising safety margins despite the complexity of one’s flying environment.

In this sense, T.E.M. training can be framed as defensive flying for pilots.

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